Evaluating the Impact of Image Delays on the Rise of MMI-Driven Telemanipulation Applications: Hand-Eye Coordination Interference from Visual Delays during Minute Pointing Operations

Iwane Maida, Tetsuya Toma, Hisashi Sato


Robots with high freedom of movement can be used for minute manipulation, enabling a wide range of real-world applications. However, the use of telemanipulation systems driven by man-machine interaction (MMI) is currently limited to experimental trials, partly because the image delay during transmission interferes with the operator’s hand-eye coordination. This study examined how delays affect operation efficiency by pointing target size, and the degree of difficulty when performing telemanipulation operations. We conducted tests in which subjects performed pointing operations while visual delays interfered with their hand-eye coordination. Our findings show statistically that regardless of target size, delay variance of 200 ms or less hardly affects operation efficiency, and that difficulty increases for a target diameter of between 4 and 2 mm.


MMI-Driven Telemanipulation; Image Delay; Hand-Eye Coordination; Minute Pointing; Operation Efficiency

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