Practical implementation of a methodology for digital images authentication using forensics techniques

Francisco Rodríguez-Santos, Guillermo Delgado-Gutierréz, Leonardo Palacios-Luengas, Rubén Vázquez Medina


This work presents a forensics analysis methodology implemented to detect modifications in JPEG digital images by analyzing the image’s metadata, thumbnail, camera traces and compression signatures. Best practices related with digital evidence and forensics analysis are considered to determine if the technical attributes and the qualities of an image are consistent with each other. This methodology is defined according to the recommendations of the Good Practice Guide for Computer-Based Electronic Evidence defined by Association of Chief Police Officers of UK; the methodology certainty level is verified by an efficiency coefficient, calculated by the quotient of the number of correct resolutions and the total number of analyzed images. This methodology can help to determine if a specific digital image can be used as evidence, and thereby, help to clarify events or incidents with legal, civil, administrative or criminal implications. Another advantage of the methodology is that it can be applied with open source software tools.


Forensic Science; Digital Evidence; Image Authenticity; Forensic Analysis Methodology; Digital Image Processing; Image Technical Attributes

Full Text:



GRABLER F, AGRAWALA M, LI W, DONTCHEVA M, IGARASHI T. Generating photo manipulation tutorials by demonstration. ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH) 28, 3, 2009.

GARRY M, GERRIE M. When photographs create false memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science 14, 326–330, 2005.

JOHNSON M, FARID H. Detecting photographic composites of people. In 6th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking. Guangzhou, China, 2007.

FARID H. A survey of image forgery detection. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2, 26, 16–25, 2009.

FARID H, BRAVO M. Image forensic analyses that elude the human visual system. In SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging. San Jose, CA, 2010.

KEE E, FARID H. Exposing digital forgeries from 3-D lighting environments. In Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, 2010.

O´BRIEN JF, FARID H. Exposing Photo Manipulation with inconsistent reflections. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 31(1):4:1–11, 2012.

LUO WEIQI, QU ZHENHUA, PAN FENG, HUANG JIWU. A survey of passive technology for digital image forensics. Front. Comput. Sci. China, 1(2): 166−179, 2007.

MIN-GU HWANG AND DONG-HWAN HAR. A Novel Forged Image Detection Method Using the Characteristics of Interpolation. J Forensic Sci., Vol. 58, No. 1, January 2013.

FEI PENG, JIAO-TING LI, MIN LONG. Identification of Natural Images and Computer-Generated Graphics Based on Statistical and Textural Features. J Forensic Sci., Vol. 60, No. 2, March 2014.

MIN GU HWANG, DONG HWAN HAR. Identification Method for Digital Image Forgery and Filtering Region through Interpolation. J Forensic Sci., Vol. 59, No. 5, September 2014.

YANJUN CAO, TIEGANG GAO, GUORUI SHENG, LI FAN, LIN GAO. A New Anti-forensic Scheme — Hiding the Single JPEG Compression Trace for Digital Image. J Forensic Sci, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2015.

KENT K, CHEVALIER S, GRANCE T, DANG H. Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Special Publication 800-86. August 2006.

Association of Chief Police Officers. Good Practice Guide for Computer-Based Electronic Evidence. Official release version.

A Road Map for Digital Forensic Research. Report from the First Digital Forensic Research Workshop (DFRWS) Technical Report; 2001 Nov. DTR -T001-01 Final.

CICHONSKI P, MILLAR J, GRANCE T, SCARFONE K. Computer Security Incident Handling Guide. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Special Publication 800-61 Revision 2. August 2012.

Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence. Best Practices for Computer Forensics v.3.1. September 2014.

National Institute of Justice. Forensic Examination of Digital Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement. NCJ 199408.

National Institute of Justice. Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, Second Edition. NCJ 219941.

BABAK MAHDIAN, STANISLAV SAIC. A bibliography on blind methods for identifying image forgery. Signal Processing: Image Communication, Volume 25, Issue 6, July 2010.

Farid H. 5 ways to spot a fake photo. The Scientific American Magazine; Page 5, June 2, 2008.

Lululemon Black Friday cheap nfl jerseys Lululemon factory Outlet ny Black Friday discount tiffany outlet wholesale soccer jerseys online oakley black friday cheap nhl jerseys china cheap nfl jerseys north face black friday sale cheap nfl jerseys online Jordans Black Friday Sale 2015 Cheap Moncler Cyber Monday moncler outlet cheap soccer jerseys moncler outlet black friday cheap authentic nfl jerseys north face cyber monday Louboutin Black Friday canada wholesale cheap nfl jerseys lululemon cyber monday 2015 cheap nfl jerseys from china 2015 Cheap Moncler Black Friday Sale Moncler Cyber Monday 2015 cheap jerseys Lululemon Cyber Monday Sale jordans cyber monday deals 2015 cheap nike nfl jerseys Black Friday deals Lululemon 2015 jordan black friday 2015 Moncler Jackets Black Friday Sale 2015 Louboutin Pas Cher Black Friday 2015 Canada Lululemon north face black friday cheap wholesale soccer jerseys